Sterilization and disinfection - what do you need to know?


Beauty, dental, podology, hairdressing salons, tattoo studios, and other places of this type should be associated primarily with the cleanliness of rooms, equipment, tools and staff, in particular due to the fact that various types of treatments are carried out there that may cause a break in the continuity of tissues, e.g. ear piercing, manicure, pedicure, depilation, invasive treatments on the face and body. It should be remembered that we do not know what diseases clients or patients come to such places with, and they often have no idea about them, much less none of them will tell about it.

Therefore, each new and regular customer must be treated as theoretically ill with an infectious disease or as a carrier of pathogenic microorganisms. Thanks to systematic procedures such as disinfection and sterilization, many infectious diseases can be prevented. for several years it has been one of the most popular treatments performed in beauty salons. It is popular among many clients thanks to thorough cleansing, exfoliation and correction of skin imperfections. Divino offers the necessary professional multifunctional equipment with the use of Medika microdermabrasion in cosmetology and aesthetic medicine offices.

What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection

Sterilization (sterilization) is a process during which all microorganisms such as fungi, viruses, bacteria along with their spore forms and spores from a given object are destroyed. An effective sterilization process should be carried out in a steam autoclave. We will receive a sterile product, provided that the materials for sterilization are properly prepared, the appropriate sterilization method is selected, the process itself runs correctly, and after its completion, the materials are stored properly.

In turn, disinfection (decontamination) aims to destroy or eliminate vegetative forms of microorganisms to a level that does not pose a threat to human health and life and to stop further spread infectious diseases. Disinfection more often concerns usable surfaces, for example countertops or frequently used handrails or door handles.

Sterilization line

As part of the sterilization chain, it is also a pre-AUTOCLAVE process. Apart from hospitals and other medical facilities, the use of the decontamination line is legally required, among others, by: beauty salons. This is due to the BINDING REGULATIONS OF THE MAIN SANITARY INSPECTORATE.

The first step is pre-disinfection in a disinfectant solution or with an ultrasonic cleaner.

Then, the tools are washed under running water and the proper disinfection process is carried out in a specially designed tub.

The next step is to rinse the tools with distilled water, dry them and preserve them with a special agent.

The last step is to pack the tools into packages and PLACE THEM IN THE AUTOCLAVE, which is the most important element of the entire sterilization line. It is a device used to sterilize reusable tools. It can also sterilize reusable masks and used disposable surgical masks before disposal.

Types of disinfection:

  • physical (high temperature, ultraviolet radiation)
  • chemical (through the use of chemicals)
  • chemical-thermal (combination of chemical substances with high temperature)

Physical disinfection methods:

Thermal method Uses hot water or steam. The water temperature reaches 80 - 100 ° C, in this way the vegetative forms of bacteria die even up to 30 minutes, unfortunately viruses are resistant to this temperature. Steam reaches a temperature of 100-105 ° C under reduced pressure, it is able to reach any place. In this way, the number of spore forms of microorganisms is reduced. These methods are used to decontaminate linen, dishes and various types of equipment. The advantage is the lack of toxicity.

UV radiation Used to disinfect microbes on surfaces and in the air. UVC radiation has the most germicidal properties. Radiation with a wavelength of 256 nm is used for this purpose.

Chemical methods:

These are all kinds of chemicals most often used for disinfection, which are components of many complex preparations.

Alkohole - to silne środki antyseptyczne. Do dezynfekcji preferowane są izopropanol oraz 70 - 80% roztwór etanolu Etanol działa bakteriobójczo, grzybobójczo i wirusobójczo, jednak nie jest w stanie zniszczyć ich przetrwalników. Izopropanol jest silniejszy od etalonu. Stosowany jest jako płyn antyseptyczny w 70% roztworu wodnego. Alkohole te mają głównie zastosowanie do antyseptyki skóry dezynfekcji rąk, małych powierzchni i przedmiotów, aby uzyskać szybki efekt.

Aldehydes - among the aldehydes, formaldehyde gas (formaldehyde) as an aqueous solution (formalin) and glutaraldehyde are distinguished. Formaldehyde has a bactericidal, virucidal and fungicidal effect and is suitable for disinfection of tools, instruments and dishes. Glutaraldehyde is used to disinfect tools and small surfaces. It has a toxic effect.

Phenols - Phenol is of great importance in antiseptics, it is one of the oldest disinfectants. It is effective in killing bacteria, fungi and some viruses depending on the concentration of the solution. Used especially for disinfection of surfaces, tools and devices.

Iodine compounds - Iodine kills all forms of microbes including spores. The advantage is its speed and intensity of action. It is used as iodine in disinfecting treatments in the form of alcohol solutions.

Chlorine compounds - They are used mainly for disinfection rather than antiseptic, but for skin, room and equipment disinfection.

The effectiveness of disinfection depends on many factors. It increases with the time of operation and the concentration of the disinfectant, temperature and humidity. The effect of using a given preparation is a disinfected surface or device, but it is not yet sterile and fully safe.

Sterilization methods

Physical sterilization methods:

Steam sterilization under pressure - takes place in devices called autoclaves, it is one of the most effective and most commonly used methods. Hot steam under high pressure is a sterilizing agent that is non-corrosive and non-toxic. Depending on the material, different temperature and time parameters can be used. Typically, 134°C at two atmospheres for 3.5 - 7 minutes and 121°C at one atmosphere for 15 - 20 minutes are used. As a result, proteins are denatured, enzymes are inactivated, and nucleic acids are defective because the hydrogen bonds in their molecules are broken on contaminated instruments.

Only a sterilizer/steam autoclave ensures 100% effectiveness and allows you to minimize the risk of infection with microorganisms that are dangerous to your health.

Sterilization with dry hot air This method uses dry hot air in special sterilizers (dryers) that reach a temperature of 160 - 200 °C. Three thermal-time options are used: 160 - 170 °C for 120 minutes, 170 -180 °C for 60 minutes and 180 -190 °C for 30 minutes. Glass objects, oily substances, powders, etc. are mainly sterilized.

Sterilization with UV radiation It is used primarily to sterilize smooth surfaces and air. Waves with a length of 253.7 nm are used from special lamps emitting radiation that has a destructive effect on microorganisms, especially on their vegetative forms. However, it is not a fully effective and safe device, it can even cause many threats.

Mechanical methods of sterilization:

Filtration (filtration) a method that retains microorganisms on filters, depending on the size of the pores and the type of material from which the filtering part is made. This method is used to sterilize air and fluids.

Chemical sterilization methods:

The sterilization methods described below use gases and chemical solutions that are designed to destroy all microorganisms in special rooms made taking into account the toxicity of these substances. They are often called low-temperature, because the sterilization of materials takes place at temperatures in the range of 40 - 60 ° C. This is due to the fact that these materials are often sensitive to high temperature and are made of plastic.

Ethylene oxide The sterilizing substance is very toxic and carcinogenic. It is used to sterilize disposable equipment and tools, except for rubber items. Ethylene oxide can penetrate deeply into sterilized equipment, so it is important to thoroughly rinse the item subjected to this method to maintain safety in further use of the product.

Formaldehyde Formaldehyde is used in combination with uneven pressure steam to sterilize plastics and rubber. It is also a toxic and mutagenic gas.

Peracetic acid For sterilization, a 0.1-0.5% solution of peracetic acid is used, which can sterilize tools within 30 minutes at a temperature of 50 - 55 °C.

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